acidulous: common odor in many species of Inocybaceae, particularly from temperate regions of the southern hemisphere, smell similar to that of species in Suillus or Lycoperdon; smell similar to that of a tin can owing to presence of acetic acid

amygdaliform: almond-shaped; use to refer to outline of basidiospores in profile view with pointed to bluntly pointed apices

avellaneous: vinaceous gray brown or “Avellaneous” of Ridgway

basidia: (-um) sing.; terminal fertile cells (meiosporangia), in which meiosis occurs and that comprise the hymenium found on the lamellae; basidia in the Inocybaceae typically produce four (less often two) sterigmata, each producing one basidiospore

basidiome: fruit body or carpophore

basidiospore: meiotic product produced by basidia; basidiospores of the Inocybaceae are typically yellowish brown (rarely lighter or white in color), smooth about an elliptic, oblong-elliptic, bean-shaped, or almond-shaped outline, or angular, trapeziform, polygonal, or elliptic with several to numerous obtusely conical or spinose nodules

brunnescent: turning a brown color

caulocystidia: cystidia similar to hymenial cystidia located on the stipe mixed with cauloparacystidia

caulocystidioid hairs: cystidioid terminal cells of superficial hyphae on stipe, paracystidia not present among these cells, can resemble metuloids

cauloparacystidia: cells on the stipe similar to paracystidia found on gill edge

chamois: dull yellow or “Chamois” of Ridgway

cheilocystidia: cystidia similar to pleurocystidia found on gill edge

chronogram: a phylogenetic tree calibrated to geological time

clamp: partial loop between two hyphae that helps maintain a heterokaryotic condition; in the Inocybaceae, clamps are frequent on hyphae examined throughout the fruit body

cortina: partial veil between the edge of the pileus and the apical portion of the stipe

crystalliferous: bearing crystals

cutis: type of pileipellis composed of repent hyphae; may be divided into epicutis and subcutis if the outer most layer of the cutis is distinguished from that below

depauperate: in this instance, referring to Inocybe species that lack pleurocystidia (excluding I. leptophylla) and having smooth basidiospores

dry sclerophyll: hard-leaved vegetation with short internodes used to describe plant communities in Australia dominated by a eucalypt overstory between 10-30 meters in height

entire: margin of pileus that is not rimose or striate

evanescent: soon disappearing

fulvous: reddish cinnamon brown or “Hazel” of Ridgway

fuscescent: turning the color of smoky drab

fuscous: smoky drab

fusiform: spindle-shaped; tapered at both ends and widest at the center

gibbous: refers to nodulose-spored condition of basidiospores

guaiac: macrochemical prepared as a tincture of gum guaiac consisting of 95% elthyl alcohol satured with gum guaiac; useful to test for presence of phenol-oxidase enzymes in mycelium

heterokaryotic: condition used to refer to hyphae with genetically distinct nuclei

hispid-squarrose: stiff erect scales

hymenium: fertile layer of basidia found on the lamellae

isabelline: dingy yellowish brown with an olive tone or “Isabella Color” of Ridgway

ivory: creamy-white

ITS: internal transcribed spacer; refers to the ribosomal RNA region that includes internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2); the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region; both ITS1 and ITS2 are highly variable (ITS1 more so) gene regions used to distinguish many species of fungi at the species level; in the Inocybaceae, the ITS has a very high substitution rate

KOH: potassium-hydroxide, usually prepared as a weak 3-5% solution

lageniform: flask-shaped or widest at the base and tapered towards the apex

lamellae: gills

lamellulae: short gills of varying lengths that extend from the margin of the pileus towards the stipe but do not reach the stipe

marginate bulb: bulb with a circular ridge

metuloid: modified cystidium apically incrusted with calcium-oxalate, typically thick-walled

monophyletic: a taxon that includes the common ancestor and all of its descendants

mucronate: with a short apical extension

muscarine: small quaternary ammonium compound that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, produced in varying quantities by numerous species of Inocybaceae and other fungi; produces the SLUDGE syndrome, symptoms of which include salivation, lacrymation, urge to urinate and defecate, gastrointestinal distress, and emesis

necropigmented basidia: basidia that become ochraceous and collapse after spore dispersal, diagnostic for species of Auritella and the Mallocybe clade, also occurring in some species of the Inosperma clade

nLSU: nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (nLSU-rRNA), comprises part of the ribosome, a subcellular unit involved in protein translation; refers to a relatively conserved region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA tandem repeat encoded by the 25S ribosomal RNA gene; in the Inocybaceae the nLSU region has a high substitute rate

nodulose: basidiospsores with small knobs

obovate: reverse egg-shaped

paracystidia: short clavate cells clustered between and among cheilocystidia

PDAB: macrochemical known as p-dimethylamino-benzaldehyde composed of PDAB dissolved in solution of conc. HCl acid and 95% ethyl alcohol

Pelargonium: genus of herbaceous plants commonly called geraniums; several species of Inocybaceae feature an odor similar to that of bruised geranium leaves

phaseoliform: bean-shaped; used to refer to outline in profile view of basidiospores

phylogeny: study of the evolutionary history of organisms

pileipellis: anatomical structure of hyphae that compose the outer part of the pileus (cap)

pileus: cap

pleurocystidia: sterile terminal cells found on the sides of gills that are differentiated in size or shape from basidia or immature basidia

pruinose: finely powdered or mealy appearance, refers to the surface of the stipe in some species of Inocybaceae

pseudoparenchymatous: cells that appear isodiametric in shape

Q-value: quotient of length and width, the former divided by the latter, usually applied to basidiospores to indicate how broad or narrow they are

raphanoid: odor like radish, a mustard plant in the genus Raphanus

refractive hyphae: conspicuous hyphae found in various regions of Inocybaceae carpophores that are yellow, ochraceous, or brown and opaque, typically long and bearing irregular knobs; Clemençon (2004) calls these thromboplera and describes these as filled with a gelatinous substance, dead, and devoid of nuclei

rimose: condition of pileus surface where fibrils have split and cracked usually revealing paler flesh beneath

rimulose: having tiny cracks between fibrils or weakly rimose

rpb1: gene that encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, enzyme used to transcribe DNA into messenger RNA; in the Inocybaceae the most variable region of rpb1 (between conserved domains A and C) is used for molecular phylogenetic purposes and to verify rRNA sequence differences between species

rpb2: gene that encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, enzyme used to transcribe DNA into messenger RNA; in the Inocybaceae the most variable region of rpb2 (between conserved domains 6 and 7) is used for molecular phylogenetic purposes and to verify rRNA sequence differences between species

rRNA: nuclear or mitochondrial ribosomal RNA; composed of gene regions most often used in fungal systematics and detection of fungi from the environment

rubescent: becoming red

spermatic: odor of some fruit bodies of Inocybaceae; similar to piperidine or catkins of Chestnut (Castanea) trees; this odor is quite strong in species of the I. geophylla group, which are rather common in the northern hemisphere, and in I. violaceocaulis, which now appears to be widespread in temperate to subtropical regions of Australia; Inocybe graveolens is a New Zealand species with a spermatic odor

sterigmate: refers to number of sterigmata on basidia, 4-sterigmate means 4 sterigmata are present on a given basidium; very few species of Inocybaceae are exclusively 2-sterigmate (see I. bispora)

stipe: stem

stipitipellis: anatomical arrangement of hyphae that comprise the outer layer of the stipe

striate: finely lined appearance; used to characterize the margin of the pileus or the surface of the stipe

sympatric: species with overlapping geographic distributions

taxonomy: study of the identification and nomenclature of organisms or things

tawny: brownish orange or “Tawny” of Ridgway

trapeziform: four sides, two of which are usually parallel or no sides parallel

trichoderm: type of pileipellis composed of ascending or erect hyphae

umbrinous: raw umber or brown or “Snuff-Brown” to “Saccardo’s Umber”; burnt umber (not used here) refers to a reddish brown color

utriform: bladder-shaped; more broad with less distinct neck than lageniform

yellowish brown: “Buckthorn Brown” of Ridgway

verrucose: warty-roughened, not the same as nodulose

wet sclerophyll: hard-leaved vegetation with short internodes used to describe plant communities in Australia dominated by a tall eucalypt overstory (>30 meters) and annual rainfall of at least 1000 mm